A collection of 391 blank paper sheets with 352 Dutch watermarks 17th - 19th Century.
Boxed in two handmade Museum Portfolio Boxes, size 45 x 32 x 8 cm. , covered in black library Buckram cloth with white acid-free paper lining. The paper sheets are inserted in Archival Polyester Pockets 430mm x 307mm. Included is a printed catalogue of 142 pages with a description of each sheet with 352 back-lit pictures of all the watermarks and a DVD with all the files of the pictures of the watermarks. Most sheets are quite large and uncut, the average size is about 25 x 40 cm. Only a a couple of sheets have some writing in ink on a small part, but never interfering with the watermarks. All paper is laid paper.
¶ The theme of all the watermarks in this collection is the Netherlands. Nearly all this paper was actually made in the Netherlands. Some were made in other countries, using a Dutch watermark, because it was made for the Dutch market, or the watermark of a high quality Dutch papermill was copied by paper mills in other countries. At the beginning of the 17th century Holland imported paper from Germany, France, Switzerland and Genoa, because no fine fine white paper was manufactured in their own country. The main paper distribution centers were Antwerp and Cologne. When prices became too high, the Dutch paper merchants went to France to have paper made for the Dutch market. At first this paper bore French watermarks, but later on they bore Dutch watermarks with French countermarks. From 1635 the coat of arms of Amsterdam began to appear as a watermark on French paper and later on with Dutch paper mills. Amsterdam became an important distribution center of paper. When non-Catholics were persecuted in France, many paper makers moved to Holland. After 1685 the Dutch became manufacturers of good quality fine white paper, thanks to the knowledge of the French. During the 18th Century Holland reached the highest standard of quality for fine white paper and exported to a lot of other countries. One of the first important mills in Holland was started in 1665 by Pieter van der Ley in Zaandijk. When the quality of the paper improved in Holland, so did the quality and the beauty of the watermarks Some groups of watermarks in this collection: - Arms of Amsterdam used between 1635 - 1796 - Britannia motif was current in the late 18th century. - Lion, Concordia, Pro Patria - Garden of Holland or Pro Patria or Maid of Dort 1683 - 1799 - Vryheit in Wreath, Lion, spear and seven darts 1654-1720 Some names of the papermakers: - D & C Blauw. The name De Erven de Blauw derives from an imortant family of Dutch papermakers who began making paper in 1621. The papermakers founded by Dirk and Cornelis Blauw operated five wind-powered papermills in the Zaanstreek province of North Holland. - N. Pannekoek. Heelsum, the Netherland. Voorn: 1717 - Pieter van der Ley. The son of Gerrit Pieters van der Ley who worked De Wever (The Weaver) and De Bonsem (The Polecat) mills at Koog aan de Zaan, Holland, from 1674 onwards. The best known paper makers of North-Holland used their initials as a countermark from the very beginning of white paper manufacture. Van der Ley did this as early as in 1673 (Voorn 1960, p. 535). - Cornelis Honig. He and his descendants operated Der Vergulde Bijenkorf (The Gilded Beehive) mill at Zaandijk, Holland from 1668, but it was not until 1675 that the mill began to produce fine writing papers. - Burghoff Magnee & Cnie Started in 1807 in Roermond, the Netherlands.
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